Формы работы по духовно нравственному воспитанию дошкольников: Методическая разработка (старшая группа) на тему: Формы и методы работы с детьми по духовно-нравственному воспитанию

Формы работы с детьми по духовно-нравственному воспитанию (из опыта работы)

В настоящее время современное российское общество остро переживает кризис духовно – нравственных идеалов. И самая большая опасность, подстерегающая наше общество сегодня – в разрушении личности. Ныне материальные ценности доминируют над духовными, поэтому у детей искажены представления о доброте, милосердии, великодушии, справедливости, гражданственности и патриотизме..

Поэтому духовно – нравственное воспитание подрастающего поколения – одна из актуальнейших задач дошкольного образования.

ФГОС ДО дает нам возможность более углубленно и целенаправленно заниматься проблемой духовно – нравственного воспитания дошкольников. Так как одной из задач стандарта является: объединения обучения и воспитания в целостный образовательный процесс на основе духовно – нравственных и социокультурных ценностей и принятых в обществе правил и норм поведения в интересах человека, семьи, общества.

Поэтому, в нашем дошкольном учреждении  большое внимание уделяется духовно-нравственному воспитанию и развитию детей. В своей работе  мы используем следующие формы :

Формы работы  с детьми по духовно-нравственному воспитанию

Чтение народных и авторских сказок, литературных произведений:

Литературный материал незаменим в нравственном воспитании ребенка, поскольку детям легче оценивать поведение и поступки других ,чем свои собственные. Для всестороннего развития  личности надо включать детей в различную деятельность, связанную с художественной литературой. Например, ребята создают свои рисунки по мотивам  сказок, рассказов, организуются выставки детских работ. 

Беседа 

Беседуя с детьми , мы побуждаем их думать и говорить. Задавая им два – три вопроса даем ребятам высказаться .Это позволяет педагогам понять, о чем дети думают. что знают из личного опыта. Таким образом с помощью воспитателя ребята учатся справедливо оценивать поступки своих сверстников, а подчас и взрослых, учатся понимать , что можно ,а что нельзя ,что хорошо , а что плохо.

Проводим такие беседы как:  «Будь всегда вежливым» ,  «Уважай отца и мать – будет в жизни благодать»,  «Где добрые люди, там беды не  будет»,«Там, где дружат – живут не тужат», «Что такое добро и зло».

Знакомство с традиционными обрядовыми праздниками

Обрядовые праздники тесно связанны с трудом и с различными сторонами общественной жизни человека. Мы считаем, что народная мудрость, заключенная в этих праздниках, сохраненная в веках, должна быть передана детям. В нашем детском саду стало традицией проведение таких обрядовых праздников, как Колядки, Масленица, Пасха, Троица, Праздник русской березки.

Знакомство с народным искусством

Воспитание гражданина и патриота, знающего и любящего свою Родину не может быть успешно решено без глубокого познания духовного богатства своего народа, освоения народной культуры.

Просмотр видеофильмов и мультфильмов о добре.

Экскурсии в природу и знакомство с красотой Божьего мира.

-Экскурсия на конную ферму в с. Баево. С целью формирование бережного отношения к животным, развитие чувства сочувствия, сопереживание.

-Оформление фотогазеты «Мой домашний любимец»

Экскурсия к памятнику

Знакомство с  православным храмом, его архитектурной особенностью, его назначением  является одной из форм введения детей в духовную  культуру, которое проходит в форме:

 -рассматривания книги с храмами Ардатовской епархии,

-посещение благослужения в Никольской церкви,

-наблюдение за строительством храма в честь святых Новомученников  и исповедников российских.

Формирование бережного отношения к труду людей разных профессий.

-Экскурсия в Пожарную часть

-Поход  в продуктовый магазин, в магазин хоз. товаров, в супермаркет.

-Поход в парикмахерскую

Оформление фотогазет, конкурс рисунков с целью воспитания любви к родителям, желание позаботиться о них, доставить радость.

Кружковая деятельность

В нашем детском саду духовно –нравственное развитие и воспитание реализуется не только в рамках образовательной программы, но и в рамках дополнительного образования.

С  октября в группе проводиться кружок «Добронравие».

Цель кружка: развить у детей такие качества,  как доброжелательность, терпимость в общении, стремление к сотрудничеству, сочувствие, сопереживание, взаимопомощь, милосердие, формировать эмоционально окрашенного чувства сопричастности к наследию родной культуры, обогащение словарного запаса и обретение добрых навыков.

Работа только началась и в начале октября мы провели  мероприятие  для родителей «День Доброты».

 

 «Дети — наше будущее». И каким будет наше будущее, зависит от нас взрослых: родителей, педагогов, общественности. Необходимо создавать такие условия, в которых формировалось бы и закреплялось изначальное стремление ребёнка к возвышенному, святому и доброму.

Мы должны помнить, что дети – это наше отражение. В первую очередь мы сами должны стать носителями духовно – нравственной культуры, которую стремимся привить детям.

 

Учебно-методический материал на тему: Использование инновационных форм работы по духовно-нравственному воспитанию дошкольников.

Муниципальное дошкольное образовательное учреждение

«Детский сад комбинированного вида

«Золотой ключик»

Города Балашова Саратовской области

Тема:

Использование инновационных форм работы по духовно-нравственному воспитанию дошкольников.

Воспитатель:

                                      Селиверстова Ольга Викторовна

2016 г.

Использование инновационных форм работы по духовно-нравственному воспитанию дошкольников.

Мы работаем по Рабочей программе, в которую включили часть, формируемую участниками образовательного процесса  — программу «Добрый мир» под редакцией Л. Л. Шевченко. Содержание программы «Добрый мир» нацелено на развитие личности ребёнка дошкольного возраста, формирование базовой культуры на основе отечественных традиционных духовных и нравственных ценностей. Мы второй год используем эту программу в области духовно-нравственного и православного воспитания и сделали вывод, что она на данный момент самая глубокая и богатая по подбору материала.

Непрерывная образовательная деятельность строится согласно перспективному плану внедрения православного компонента  (Программы «Добрый мир») в образовательную деятельность: утренние беседы, дидактические и подвижные игры, прогулки, чтение художественной литературы по православной тематике, ИКТ (компьютерные презентации и мультфильмы, которые помогают дошкольникам наиболее успешно усвоить новою информацию). Введение православного компонента в непрерывно-образовательную деятельность познавательной, речевой, социально-коммуникативной, художественно-эстетической  направленности способствует  развитию у детей духовно-нравственных качеств, воспитывает у них доброту, милосердие, сострадание ко всему живому на земле.

Систематическая работа с семьями по внедрению православного компонента является неотъемлемой частью воспитательно-образовательного процесса. Различные формы сотрудничества помогают педагогам в достижении поставленных целей и задач:

  • анкетирование по внедрению основ христианской культуры;
  • беседы на духовно-нравственные темы;
  • родительские собрания;
  • папки-передвижки «Как знакомить детей с Рождеством», «Праздник Пасхи – день весны», которые знакомят с  традициями православных  праздников – Рождества Христова, Светлого Христова Воскресения;
  • тематические выставки — выставка православной литературы для чтения детям;
  • совместное создание православного уголка;
  • участие в конкурсах «Книжка-самоделка», «Пасхальные украшения»;
  • совместные праздники  «Сохраним творения природы Саратовского края»;
  • проведение  познавательно-творческих  проектов  :«Мультфильм – это добро или зло»,       « Святые имена России» с участием дошкольников, педагогов и родителей.
  • По итогам проекта «Через искусство  зеленой планете…», «Мультфильм- это добро или зло»  организовали открытый показ , на которым обобщили  результаты проведенной работы по данной теме. Целью таких НОД  являлось  духовно-нравственное воспитание детей, (добро-зло, дни творения).

  К мероприятиям  организовывалась выставка книг, создали книгу к 80-летию Саратовской области созданных совместными усилиями детей, их родителей.

Таким образом, проведение  конкурсов по православному воспитанию является одним из основных методов  в духовно-нравственном воспитании. Они способствуют развитию личности ребенка, его познавательного, коммуникативного, нравственного, духовного, эстетического потенциалов. Формируют навыки межличностного общения, воспитывают любовь к русским традициям, помогают нам вовлечь в образовательный процесс родителей. Появляется возможность знакомить детей с православными  ценностями, не навязывая их, а органично включая в учебно-воспитательный процесс.

 Проведение смотров-конкурсов подтвердило свою эффективность, именно поэтому мы в своей работе используем этот метод как один из основных.

В группе создана развивающая предметно-пространственная среда по внедрению основ христианской культуры. Воспитанники с большим интересом  прикасаются к азам православной культуры:

Дидактические игры «Дни творения», « Пасхальный кулич»,  пазлы, дидактический куб «Семь дней творения», словесные игры, которые способствуют формированию  духовного мира дошкольника, воспитывают лучшие черты его личности, также способствуют накоплению ими духовного опыта.

Например, игра «Подбери цвет»:

 Задачи: создавать условия для самоутверждения ребенка в группе детей и взрослых; расширять запас слов — антонимов и учить их использовать в определенных ситуациях.

Подготовительная работа. Педагог читает детям стихотворение В. Маяковского «Что такое хорошо и что такое плохо». Затем раздает детям карточки 2-х цветов: белого и черного и предлагает подобрать цвет карточки для слова «хорошо» (белый цвет) и для слова «плохо» (черный цвет).

Педагог называет слова, а дети подбирают и показывают нужный цвет для слов-антонимов.

Добро — зло

горе — радость

хорошо — плохо

трудолюбие – лень

жадность – щедрость

трусость – храбрость

любовь – ненависть

грубость – вежливость

мир – война

темнота – свет

дружба – вражда

грязь — чистота и т. д.

Игра «Пасхальный кулич»

Задачи: побуждать у детей желание знать, какие продукты используют для приготовления кулича, пасхи.

Предварительная работа: провести беседу о праздновании Пасхи.

На фланелеграфе в беспорядке расположены рисунки с изображением продуктов: мука, сахар, зелень, яйца, колбаса, огурцы, молоко, помидоры, дрожжи, картофель, масло, морковь, соль.

Задание: оставить только те продукты, из которых можно приготовить пасхальный кулич. Остальные рисунки надо убрать.

Игра «Ангел-хранитель»

Задачи: учить детей проявлять любовь к другим, милосердие, сострадание.

Предварительная работа. Педагог напоминает детям, что каждому христианину Бог при крещении дает Ангела-Хранителя, который невидимо охраняет человека от всякого зла, предостерегает от грехов. Он наш помощник и покровитель. Он ведет нас правильной дорогой, уводя от опасностей. Но человек не видит своего ангела.

Игра. Педагог предлагает поиграть в игру «Ангел-хранитель». На полу расставлены препятствия. Вызываются двое детей. Одному завязывают глаза. Другому — предлагается аккуратно провести невидящего ребенка мимо препятствий, т. е. стать его ангелом-хранителем.

Игра «Пять  орешков»

Задачи: создавать условия для самоутверждения ребенка в группе детей и взрослых; расширять запас слов и учить их использовать в определенных ситуациях.

Подготовительная работа. Педагог обращает внимание детей на то, что у каждого человека есть хорошие качества.

Предложить детям назвать хорошие качества человека. Вызываются 2-3 ребенка, которые по очереди называют слова. За каждое правильно сказанное слово дается орешек. Выигрывает тот, кто наберет 5 орешков. Качества: хороший, добрый, заботливый, трудолюбивый, нежный, верный, ласковый, любящий, честный, работящий, умный, щедрый, смелый, целеустремленный, усидчивый, веселый, доброжелательный, отзывчивый, скромный, общительный, чистоплотный и т. д.

Технология проведения игр заключается в том, чтобы ребенок мог самовыразиться, самоутвердиться, познать себя и других, чтобы детям в игре было легко и уютно.

Организуя игру, мы  рассматриваем  каждого ребенка как индивидуальность, способную проявить свое личное «Я»; каждая игра должна создавать эмоциональный настрой даже для проигравших детей.

В организации и проведении православных игр важна методика объяснения игры. Не следует начинать игру с ее названия или пересказа содержания, т.к. это снижает интерес к ней. Мы начинаем  объяснение игры со вступления, которое должно быть связано с темой игровой ситуации. Лучшим вариантом считается объяснение по ходу игры и организации ее участников и болельщиков.

В процессе игры между педагогом и детьми должен быть диалог. Если игра носит словесный характер, то педагог должен повторить ответ ребенка, не зависимо от того, правильный он или неправильный.

Важно регулировать темп игры, не допускать пауз, вести игру в хорошем настроении, с улыбкой.
Продолжительность игры зависит от интереса аудитории к игре. Если зрелищный запас исчерпан, то следует снять это задание или заменить его другим.

Мы поощряем участников или группу участников словами: «спасибо», «молодцы», «умники», «умницы» и т.д., предлагаем зрителям поаплодировать участникам за удачное выполнение игрового задания или остроумный ответ, чтобы подбодрить участников, и раздать им призы.

Также мы расширяем сотрудничество с общественными организациями в сфере духовно- нравственного воспитания детей:

-Проведение Масленицы в Краеведческом музее с участием родителей;

-Одной из инновационных форм работы  по духовно- нравственному воспитанию детей является взаимодействие  с  отделом религиозного образования и катехизации Религиозной организации «Балашовская Епархия Русской Православной Церкви (Московский Патриархат)». Проводятся беседы служителей церкви, организовываются  экскурсии в православный храм, где рассказывают о  храме как доме Божьем, детей  знакомят с православными традициями жизни как радостью жизни христиан.

-У нас функционируют сайты , на которых размещена информация по духовно- нравственному воспитанию: «Как знакомить детей с Рождеством», «Праздник Пасхи – день весны», дидактические игры и методика их проведения.

Таким образом, анализируя результаты работы с семьей по воспитанию духовно – нравственной культуры у ребенка, пришли к выводу, что при условии постоянной и планомерной работы по привлечению родителей в образовательный процесс:

  • изменились взаимоотношения детей в группе
  • у детей появляется интерес к познанию истории родного края, культуре
  • дети стали более общительными, милосердными, активнее реагируют на различные социальные ситуации, оценивают поступки товарищей.
  • А у родителей в свою очередь повысилась активность в проведении разных мероприятий;
  • удалось расположить родителей к детскому саду, теперь это мои помощники, друзья, которые всегда приходят на помощь и с радостью помогают в воспитании детей. Ведь они уверенны, что их ребёнка в детском саду всегда ждут с радостью и любовью.

Считаю, что  деятельность педагогов детского сада по приобщению  детей к православным традициям нашего народа плодотворной, способствующей формированию нравственным качеств дошкольников.

Формы работы с родителями по духовно-нравственному воспитанию детей

Формы работы с родителями по духовно-нравственному воспитанию детей

Родительские собрания:

Деловая игра

«Как создать гармонию отношений в семье»

Помочь родителям в решении педагогических и жизненных ситуаций. Сплотить родительский коллектив, почувствовать радость общения.

2

Практикум для родителей

«Праздники в детском саду как средство помощи

во взаимоотношениях родителей и ребенка»

Поиск новых форм взаимодействия воспитателей дошкольного учреждения с семьями воспитанников; повышение педагогической культуры родителей; способствовать установлению эмоционального контакта между детьми и их родителями.

3

Творческая лаборатория.

«Нравственные отношения в семье и в детском саду»

Вовлечь родителей в совместное осмысление нравственных ценностей; провести тренинг навыков нравственного отношения к людям и адекватной оценки себя и других.

4

Мастер — класс

«Толерантность в разрешении конфликтов»

Познакомить родителей с понятиями толерантность, воспитание в духе толерантности, толерантный подход к игровой деятельности ребенка, разрешение конфликта с позиции толерантного подхода.

5

Круглый стол

«Я – человек»

Участие родителей в жизни детского сада. Организация совместных вечеров досуга. Развитие мышления, сообразительности, смекалки, конструктивных умений, ориентации на плоскости. Воспитание духовно — нравственных ценностей у детей: доброты, отзывчивости, сопереживания за общий результат, гордости за членов своей семьи.

6

Семейный клуб.

Интеллектуальное шоу

«Хочу все знать!»

Участие родителей в жизни детского сада. Организация совместных вечеров досуга. Развитие мышления, сообразительности, смекалки, конструктивных умений, ориентации на плоскости. Воспитание духовно — нравственных ценностей у детей: доброты, отзывчивости, сопереживания за общий результат, гордости за членов своей семьи.

7

Семейный досуг

«Все начинается с любви»

Приобщение родителей к участию в совместных с детьми мероприятиях. Знакомство с семейными традициями. Воспитание у детей гордости за свою фамилию.

8

Семейные встречи

КВН.

«Национальные обряды и традиции в духовно-нравственном воспитании».

Оценивание позитивного влияния зоны ближайшего развития на совершенствование коммуникативных отношений дошкольников, способных к решению поставленных задач.

9

«Музыкальное ассорти»

Оценивание уровня свободного времени общения средствами эстетического восприятия на духовно-нравственное воспитание дошкольников.

10

Литературные чтения.

«У семейного огонька»

Помочь родителям педагогическими советами в нравственном воспитании детей.

11

Дни открытых дверей

«Соберем своих друзей»

Знакомство родителей с основными направлениями воспитательно-образовательного процесса. Способствовать укреплению детско-родительских отношений.

12

Выставки семейных коллекций

«Идем дорогою добра»

Участие родителей и детей в совместном создании композиций, посвященных нравственно-духовным ценностям, используя экологически чистые материалы.

13

«Семейные фантазии»

Способствовать развитию общения между родителями, знакомить с семейными традициями.

14

Выставка работ, изготовленных вместе с родителями

«Моя семья», «Мой любимый город», «Волшебный мир сказок»

Привлечь родителей к участию в выставках, конкурсах. Способствовать совместному времяпровождения с детьми. Развитие эстетического вкуса, творческого потенциала.

15

Конкурс поделок

«Необычный дорожный знак»

Привлечение родителей к совместной деятельности с детьми. Развитие эстетического вкуса, творческих способностей. Пропаганда ДТП.

16

Проектная деятельность родителей с воспитателями

«Самая лучшая -мамочка моя»

«Новый год -семейный праздник»

«Национальные обряды»

«Наурыз Мераймы»

Помощь родителей в подготовке и проведении праздников и досугов. Способствовать сплочению д/с и семьи в нравственно-духовном воспитании детей.

17

Спортивные праздники

«Папа, мама, я – спортивная семья», «Отдыхаем всей семьей», «Мылыши – крепыши»

«А ну-ка, папы»

Способствовать активному участию родителей в спортивных мероприятиях детского сада. Пропагандировать ЗОЖ

18

  1. Оформление родительских уголков

«Говорят дети»,

«Чем и как занять ребенка дома»,

«Спрашивали – отвечаем»,

«Наши успехи»

Проводить просветительную работу среди родительских масс о жизнедеятельности детей в стенах д/с, заинтересовывать в активном участии в педагогическом процессе.

19

  1. Выпуск семейных газет»

«Мир красоты и духовного богатства»,

«Нам в семье совсем не скучно»,

«Вот такой помощник я!»

Делиться опытом семейного воспитания. Способствовать укреплению детско-родительских отношений. Воспитывать у детей гордость за свою семью.

20

Консультации для родителей

«Воспитание дружеских взаимоотношений между сверстниками»,

«Роль дедушек и бабушек в семейном воспитании».

«Капризы и их предупреждения»

Способствовать воспитанию дружеских взаимоотношений со сверстниками, помощь в организации детского досуга в семье.

Показать положительные и отрицательные стороны воздействия на детей старшего поколения.

Помощь родителям в воспитании гипер активных детей. Предложить советы по устранению нежелательного поведения детей.

» Работа с родителями по духовно-нравственному воспитанию дошкольников «

Семья – ближайшее социальное окружение, определяющее формирование внутреннего мира каждого ребенка.

Духовно-нравственное воспитание в детском саду является неотъемлемой частью всестороннего воспитания ребенка, необходимой предпосылкой возрождения отечественной культуры. Качественно новой ступенью духовно-нравственного воспитания в детском саду является интеграция его содержания в повседневную жизнь детей, во все виды детской деятельности. Создание единой системы духовно-нравственного воспитания в дошкольном учреждении на основе взаимодействия всех участников образовательного процесса позволяет решать задачи ФГОС ДО.

Воспитание духовной личности возможно только совместными усилиями семьи, дошкольного образовательного учреждения.

Именно поточу, что семья ребенка является ключевым звеном направления духовно-нравственного воспитания детей, а также в свете новой концепции взаимодействия семьи и дошкольного учреждения, в основе которой лежит идея о том, что за воспитание детей несут ответственность родители, а все другие социальные институты призваны помочь, поддержать и дополнить их воспитательную работу, воспитание у детей духовно- нравственных чувств необходимо осуществлять в тесной связи с родителями. Поэтому работа по воспитанию у детей духовно-нравственных качеств личности строится в тесном взаимодействии всех субъектов воспитательного процесса.

     Цель работы: Создавать условия для духовно-нравственного развития ребенка в тесном взаимодействии ДОУ с семьёй, социально-педагогическая поддержка становления и развития детей.

 

     Задачи:

1.     Повысить педагогическую компетентность родителей по духовно-нравственному воспитанию дошкольников.

2.     Воспитывать у детей чувство любви и привязанности к семье, малой Родине, родной стране.

3.     Расширять представления о культуре, православных праздниках и народных традициях своего народа.

4.     Способствовать формированию духовно-нравственных качеств в процессе установления позитивных межличностных отношений. Воспитывать у детей отзывчивость, общительность, дружелюбие.

5.     Вовлечь родителей в образовательную деятельность духовно-нравственному воспитанию детей.

Духовно-нравственное воспитание тесно переплетается с патриотическим воспитанием, ведь любовь к своему дому, городу, Родине влечет уважение и любовь к своей семье. В настоящее время все больше семей стараются привлекать детей к ознакомлению с историей своего края и человечества в целом.

 

 В последнее время появился термин «новый патриотизм»,который включает в себя чувство ответственности перед обществом, чувство глубокой духовной привязанности к семье ,дому, Родине, родной природе, толерантное отношение к другим людям. Формирование личности ребёнка, его воспитание начинается с воспитания чувств через мир положительных эмоций, через обязательное приобщение к культуре, обеспечение духовной и интеллектуальной пищей , в которой он нуждается. Врач и педагог М.Монтессори в своей книге «Дом ребёнка» в 1915 г. писала: «Главное в работе с детьми 3-7 лет воспитание чувств, т.е. динамика от чувств к идеям.» Духовно-нравственное воспитание в д/саду – это попытка движения от воспитания  простых чувств, к достижению наивысшей цели воспитания чувств патриотических, любви и гордости за свою Родину.

Конечно, начинать работу по духовно — нравственному воспитанию нужно с создания для детей тёплой, уютной атмосферы. Каждый день ребёнка в д/саду должен быть наполнен радостью, улыбками, добрыми друзьями, весёлыми играми. Ведь с воспитания чувства  привязанности к родному детскому саду, родной улице, родной семье – начинается формирование того фундамента, на котором  будет вырастать более сложное образование, чувство любви к своему Отечеству.

Мир ребёнка начинается с его семьи, впервые  он осознаёт себя членом семейного сообщества. И именно в семье, родителям надо начинать формирование чувства привязанности к своему дому, детскому саду, друзьям в д/саду, своим близким. Формировать чувство любви к своему родному краю, своей малой родине, на основе приобщения к родной природе, культуре и традициям; формировать представления о России, как о родной стране.

Молодые родители не задумываются о воспитании гуманной, духовно – нравственной личности, достойных будущих граждан России, патриотов своего Отечества. А некоторые родители не знают с чего начать и не имеют знаний по этому вопросу. Поэтому мы воспитатели помогаем им в решении этих задач. И используем разные формы работы с родителями по воспитанию у детей чувства патриотизма:

1.На родительских собраниях направляем мысли родителей  на то, что дошкольный возраст, как возраст формирования основ личности, имеет свои потенциальные возможности для формирования высших социальных чувств, к которым относится и чувство патриотизма. Чтобы найти верный путь воспитания многогранного чувства  любви к Родине, базой патриотического воспитания является нравственное, эстетическое, трудовое, умственное воспитание маленького человека. В процессе такого разностороннего воспитания зарождаются первые ростки  гражданско – патриотических чувств.

2.На собраниях стараемся разнообразить формы общения с родителями – проводим игры. Например «Слово – эстафета». Чтобы мы сообща искали ответы на конкретные вопросы по воспитанию детей. Читаю небольшие рассказы, которые помогают родителям поступать с учётом нравственных норм. Проводим беседы, консультации перед праздниками (День защитников Отечества, День Победы и др.).Предлагаем родителям рассказывать о подвигах русских солдат, рассматривали ордена, читали книги раскрывающие красоту человеческих поступков, рассказывали о своём труде. Оформляем доски для родителей, вывешиваем плакаты, поздравительные открытки, информацию о праздниках.

3. Советуем родителям тематику прогулок по родному городу. Среди них: посещение Кремля, парка культуры, стадионов, музеев, мест связанных с жизнью великих людей и земляков. Просим родителей нарисовать, как провели выходные  дни или принести фото посещения интересных мест. Начали оформлять альбом «Любимые места Нижнего Новгорода»

4.Я как воспитатель, раскрываю перед родителями ценность и необходимость участия ребёнка в труде взрослых на общее благо: почистить снег на участке в д/саду вместе с папой, отремонтировать стулья, сделать кормушку для птиц и повесить её на участке. Пусть участие ребёнка будет весьма скромным, но радость от коллективного труда, гордость общими результатами станет важным эмоциональным фоном  для формирования активной жизненной позиции будущего гражданина. Беседы о красоте, учат ценить красоту.

5.Особого внимания в работе с родителями требует тема «Родная природа». Делали стенды, посвященные ознакомлению детей с родной природой на темы: «Воскресные прогулки в природу», «Влияние природы на всестороннее развитие личности ребёнка», «Кто любит природу и заботится о ней, тот любит свою родину». Устраиваем выставки поделок детей и родителей «Природа и фантазия», «Осенняя ярмарка», «Зимняя сказка», «Чудеса с обычной грядки», «Осенних листьев хоровод». Предлагаем делать сезонные букеты – икебаны. Обращаем внимание родителей, чтобы они помогали детям видеть красоту по всюду: в природе, явлениях природы, поступках, картинках. Беседы о красоте учат ценить красоту и избегать безобразия.

6.Наиболее эффективно воздействие на ребёнка средствами эстетического воспитания, поэтому большая роль в воспитании духовно — нравственных чувств отводится изобразительной деятельности, прослушиванию литературных и музыкальных произведений.В группе мы сделали альбомы: «По следам любимых сказок», «Пословицы о труде», «Пословицы о семье», «Старинная пословица не мимо молвится», «Пословицы о дружбе».Родители читали детям сказки, выбирали любимую и рисовали в альбоме рисунки. Предлагали родителям познакомиться с пословицами о труде, семье и дружбе. Пословицы – выражение народной мудрости. Они знакомят с жизненным опытом человечества. Опыт, который пригодится на долгом жизненном пути каждому ребёнку. Выбрать одну из них, выучить с ребёнком и зарисовать в альбоме. Я советовала родителям приобрести диски с любимыми детскими песнями ,народными песнями и мелодиями классической музыки. С помощью родителей собрали небольшую фонотеку. Родители помогли в оформлении музыкального уголка народными инструментами: сделали макет балалайки, принесли деревянные ложки. Вывешивали в раздевалке отксеренные пословицы, афоризмы, пословицы о воспитании детей, о ценности семьи, книг, дружбы. Оформили папку «Народные пословицы».

7.Литература и искусство оказывают огромное влияние на нравственное развитие и эмоциональный мир ребёнка. Предлагаю родителям почитать книги по нравственному воспитанию Воронковой Л.Ф., Чуковского К.И., Бианки В.В., Маршака С.Я., Акима Я.Л., Успенского Э.Н. Наибольший эмоциональный отклик у детей вызывают праздники,                                     утренники, массовые мероприятия. Мы предлагаем проводить мероприятия,     способствующие развитию патриотических чувств, приглашаем на них      родителей, например: осенняя ярмарка, новогодний праздник, рождественские колядки, День защитника Отечества, «Встреча весны» —   фольклорный праздник, масленичная олимпиада, день Победы, день защиты  детей, день Отца. Готовимся провести праздник в группе «Сказка в гости приходит».В котором будут участвовать родители и дети.

8.Наши родители являются активными участниками конкурсов разного уровня, например: Епархиальный конкурс «Мамочка  — мой ангел». Областной конкурс «Четыре с хвостиком». Наши участники были награждены грамотами и дипломами.

9.Большую помощь в воспитании маленьких патриотов оказывают знания о культуре и предметах народно – прикладного творчества. С помощью родителей, мы делаем в группе папки с демонстрационным материалом «Знакомство детей с музыкальными инструментами», «Защитники Родины в народных сказках и былинах», «Знакомство детей с предметами русского быта», «Знакомство детей с народными пословицами»,  «Знакомство детей с народными промыслами».Обращаю внимание родителей, что при воспитании у дошкольников уважения к окружающим людям, любви к родителям, семье, интереса к окружающей жизни, мы способствуем формированию таких сложных чувств, как любовь к родному краю, к своей стране. Углубить эти чувства помогают – художественное слово – стихи, рассказы о маме и папе, природе, песни, рисование портретов родителей, приготовление подарков для них к праздникам. Составили с родителями папку «О семьях нашей группы»: семья, девиз семьи, любимые занятия.

 

 

90000 Moral education of children of preschool age: bases, means, methods 90001 90002 In the article, let’s talk about the moral education of preschool children. We will take a closer look at this topic, and also talk about key tools and methods. 90003 90004 What is it about? 90005 90002 To begin with, we note that moral educationof children of middle preschool age is a broad concept that includes a whole complex of educational methods that teach the child moral values. But the child and before that gradually increases his level of education, is included in a certain social environment, begins to interact with other people and develop self-education.That is why the moral upbringing of children of younger preschool age is of no small importance, which we will also talk about, because in this period there are significant changes in the personality. 90003 90004 The content of moral education 90005 90002 Since ancient times, philosophers, scientists, parents, writers and teachers were interested in the issue of moral education of the future generation. Let’s not hide that every old generation is celebrating the fall of the moral foundations of youth.Regularly, new and new recommendations are being developed, the purpose of which is to increase the level of morality. 90003 90002 Great influence on this process rendersstate, which actually forms a certain set of necessary qualities of a person. For example, consider the times of communism, when most of all the honors were toilers. People were exalted who were ready at any time to come to the rescue and clearly execute the order of the leadership. In a sense, the personality was oppressed, while collectivists were most valued.When capitalist relations came to the fore, such traits as ability to search for non-standard solutions, creativity, initiative, enterprise became key. Naturally, all this affected the education of children. 90003 90004 Why do we need the moral education of preschool children? 90005 90002 Many scientists respond differently to this question, but in any case the answer is ambiguous. Most researchers still agree that it is impossible to raise such qualities in a child, you can only try to plant them.It is rather difficult to say exactly what the individual perception of each child depends on. Most likely, it comes from the family. If the child grows in a quiet, pleasant environment, then it will be easier to «wake up» these qualities. It is logical that a child who lives in an atmosphere of violence and constant stress, will be less succumbing to the efforts of the educator. Also, many psychologists say that the problem lies in the inconsistency of upbringing, which the child receives at home and in the team.Such a contradiction can eventually lead to an internal conflict. 90003 90002 As an example, let us cite the case when parentstry to nurture a child’s sense of ownership and aggression, and educators — to instill such qualities as benevolence, friendliness and generosity. Because of this, the child may have some difficulties in forming his own opinion on the account of this or that situation. That is why it is very important for young children to learn the highest values, such as goodness, honesty, justice, regardless of what principles are currently guided by his parents.Thanks to this, the child will understand that there is some ideal option, and will be able to make up his own opinion. 90003 90004 Basic concepts of moral education of children of senior preschool age 90005 90002 The first thing to understand is that trainingshould be complex. However, in the modern world, we are increasingly seeing a situation where a child, moving from one teacher to another, absorbs completely opposite values. In this case, a normal learning process is impossible, it will be chaotic.At the moment, the goal of moral and patriotic education of preschool children is to fully develop both the qualities of the collectivist and the individual. 90003 90002 Very often caregivers usepersonal-oriented theory, through which the child learns to openly express his opinion and defend his position without entering into conflict. Thus, self-esteem and significance are formed. 90003 90002 However, in order to achieve maximum results, the methods of moral education of children of preschool age should be selected deliberately and purposefully.90003 90004 Approaches 90005 90002 There are several approaches that are used tothe formation of moral qualities. They are realized through play, work, creativity, literary works (fairy tales), personal example. In this case, any approach to moral education has an impact on the whole complex of its forms. We list them: 90003 90032 90033 patriotically feelings; 90034 90033 attitude to power; 90034 90033 personal qualities; 90034 90033 relations in the team; 90034 90033 unspoken rules of etiquette.90034 90043 90002 If the teachers even work a littleeach of these areas, they already create an excellent base. If the entire system of upbringing and education acted according to the same scheme, skills and knowledge, overlapping each other, would form a whole complex of qualities. 90003 90004 Problems 90005 90002 Problems of moral upbringing of childrenpreschool age are that the child is hesitating between two authorities. On the one hand, they are educators, and on the other hand, parents.But in this issue there is a positive side. Institutions of preschool education and parents, acting together, can achieve excellent results. But, on the other hand, the child’s unformed personality can be very confused. At the same time, let’s not forget that children subconsciously copy the behavior and reactions of the person they consider their mentor. 90003 90002 The peak of this behavior falls on the firstschool years. If in the Soviet era, all the shortcomings and mistakes of each child were put on public display, in the modern world such problems are discussed behind closed doors.Moreover, scientists have long proved that education and training, built on criticism, can not be effective. 90003 90002 At the moment, there is no public announcement of anyproblems are treated as punishment. To date, parents can complain about the caregiver if they are not satisfied with his methods of work. Note that in most cases this interference is inadequate. But in the case of moral and patriotic education of children of senior preschool age, the authority of the educator is of great importance.But teachers are becoming less active. They remain neutral, trying not to harm the child, but in this way and not teaching him anything. 90003 90004 Objectives 90005 90002 The goals of moral education of children of senior preschool age are: 90003 90032 90033 the formation of various habits, qualities and ideas about something; 90034 90033 education of humane attitude to nature and others; 90034 90033 the formation of patriotic feelings and pride for their country; 90034 90033 education of tolerant attitude towards people of a different nationality; 90034 90033 formation of communication skills, allowing to work productively in the team; 90034 90033 the formation of an adequate sense of self-worth.90034 90043 90004 Facilities 90005 90002 Spiritual and moral education of children of preschool age occurs when certain means and methods are used, which we will discuss below. 90003 90002 First, it is creativity in all its manifestations: music, literature, visual arts. Thanks to all this, the child learns to perceive the world figuratively and to feel it. In addition, creativity gives the opportunity to express their own feelings and emotions with the help of words, music or drawings. Over time, the child understands that everyone is free to realize himself as he pleases.90003 90002 Secondly, it is communication with nature, whichis an indispensable factor in the formation of a healthy psyche. To begin with, we note that pastime in nature always fills not only the child, but also any person with forces. Watching the world around him, the child learns to analyze and understand the laws of nature. Thus, the kid realizes that many processes are natural and should not be embarrassed. 90003 90002 Thirdly, the activity that manifests itself in thegames, work or creativity.At the same time the child learns to express himself, to lead and present himself in a certain way, to understand other children and to apply the basic principles of communication in practice. In addition, thanks to this, the baby learns to communicate. 90003 90002 An important means of spiritual and moraleducation of children of preschool age is the situation. As they say, in a basket with rotten apples and healthy soon will start to deteriorate. Means of moral education of children of preschool age will be ineffective if the collective does not have the necessary atmosphere.To overestimate the importance of the environment is impossible, since modern scientists have proved that it plays a huge role. Let’s notice, that even if the person especially to what does not aspire, at change of environment of dialogue it considerably changes for the better, gets the purposes and desires. 90003 90002 During the moral-patriotic education of children of senior preschool age, specialists resort to three main methods. 90003 90002 This is establishing contact for interaction, which is built on respec 90003.90000 Moral Education — A Brief History of Moral Education, The Return of Character Education, Current Approaches to Moral Education 90001 90002 Only a handful of educational theorists hold the view that if only the adult world would get out of the way, children would ripen into fully realized people. Most thinkers, educational practitioners, and parents acknowledge that children are born helpless and need the care and guidance of adults into their teens and often beyond. More specifically, children need to learn how to live harmoniously in society.Historically, the mission of schools has been to develop in the young both the intellectual and the moral virtues. Concern for the moral virtues, such as honesty, responsibility, and respect for others, is the domain of moral education. 90003 90002 Moral education, then, refers to helping children acquire those virtues or moral habits that will help them individually live good lives and at the same time become productive, contributing members of their communities. In this view, moral education should contribute not only to the students as individuals, but also to the social cohesion of a community.The word 90005 moral 90006 comes from a Latin root (90005 mos, moris 90006) and means the code or customs of a people, the social glue that defines how individuals should live together. 90003 90010 A Brief History of Moral Education 90011 90002 Every enduring community has a moral code and it is the responsibility and the concern of its adults to instill this code in the hearts and minds of its young. Since the advent of schooling, adults have expected the schools to contribute positively to the moral education of children.When the first common schools were founded in the New World, moral education was the prime concern. New England Puritans believed the moral code resided in the Bible. Therefore, it was imperative that children be taught to read, thus having access to its grounding wisdom. As early as тисячі шістсот сорок два the colony of Massachusetts passed a law requiring parents to educate their children. In тисячі шістсот сорок сім the famous Old Deluder Satan Act strengthened the law. Without the ability to read the Scriptures, children would be prey to the snares of Satan.90003 90002 90015 The colonial period. 90016 As common school spread throughout the colonies, the moral education of children was taken for granted. Formal education had a distinctly moral and religion emphasis. Harvard College was founded to prepare clergy for their work. Those men who carved out the United States from the British crown risked their fortunes, their families, and their very lives with their seditious rebellion. Most of them were classically educated in philosophy, theology, and political science, so they had learned that history’s great thinkers held democracy in low regard.They knew that democracy contained within itself the seeds of its own destruction and could degenerate into mobocracy with the many preying on the few and with political leaders pandering to the citizenry’s hunger for bread and circuses. The founders ‘writings, particularly those of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John and Abigail Adams, and Benjamin Franklin, are filled with admonitions that their new country make education a high priority. While the early leaders saw economic reasons for more and longer schooling, they were convinced that the form of government they were adopting was, at heart, a moral compact among people.90003 90002 90015 Nineteenth century. 90016 As the young republic took shape, schooling was promoted for both secular and moral reasons. In 1832, a time when some of the Founding Fathers were still alive, Abraham Lincoln wrote, in his first political announcement (March 9,1832), «I desire to see a time when education, and by its means, morality, sobriety, enterprise and industry, shall become much more general than at present. » Horace Mann, the nineteenth-century champion of the common schools, strongly advocated for moral education.He and his followers were worried by the widespread drunkenness, crime, and poverty during the Jacksonian period in which they lived. Of concern, too, were the waves of immigrants flooding into cities, unprepared for urban life and particularly unprepared to participate in democratic civic life. Mann and his supporters saw free public schools as the ethical leaven of society. In 1849 in his twelfth and final report to the Massachusetts Board of Education, he wrote that if children age four to sixteen could experience «the elevating influences of good schools, the dark host of private vices and public crimes, which now embitter domestic peace and stain the civilization of the age, might, in 99 cases in every 100, be banished from the world «(p.96). 90003 90002 In the nineteenth century, teachers were hired and trained with the clear expectation that they would advance the moral mission of the school and attend to character formation. Literature, biography, and history were taught with the explicit intention of infusing children with high moral standards and good examples to guide their lives. Students ‘copybook headings offered morally uplifting thoughts: «Quarrelsome persons are always dangerous companions» and «Praise follows exertion.»The most successful textbooks during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were the famed McGuffey readers, which were filled with moral stories, urgings, and lessons. During this period of our evolution as a nation, moral education was deep in the very fabric of our schools. 90003 90002 There was, however, something else in the fabric of moral education that caused it to become problematic: religion. In the United States, as a group of colonies and later as a new nation, the overwhelming dominant religion was Protestantism.While not as prominent as during the Puritan era, the King James Bible was, nevertheless, a staple of U.S. public schools. The root of the moral code was seen as residing there. However, as waves of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, and Italy came to the country from the mid-nineteenth century forward, the pan-Protestant tone and orthodoxy of the schools came under scrutiny and a reaction set in. Concerned that their children would be weaned from their faith, Catholics developed their own school system.Later in the twentieth century, other religious groups, such as Jews, Muslims, and even various Protestant denominations, formed their own schools. Each group desired, and continues to desire, that its moral education be rooted in its respective faith or code. 90003 90002 90015 Twentieth century. 90016 During this same late-nineteenth-century and twentieth-century period, there was also a growing reaction against organized religion and the belief in a spiritual dimension of human existence. Intellectual leaders and writers were deeply influenced by the ideas of the English naturalist Charles Darwin, the German political philosopher Karl Marx, the Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud, and the German philosopher and poet Friedrich Nietzsche, and by a growing strict interpretation of the separation of church and state doctrine.This trend increased after World War II and was further intensified by what appeared to be the large cracks in the nation’s moral consensus in the late 1960s. Since for so many Americans the strongest roots of moral truths reside in their religious beliefs, educators and others became wary of using the schools for moral education. More and more this was seen to be the province of the family and the church. Some educators became proponents of «value-free» schooling, ignoring the fact that it is impossible to create a school devoid of ethical issues, lessons, and controversies.90003 90002 During the last quarter of the twentieth century, as many schools attempted to ignore the moral dimension of schooling, three things happened: Achievement scores began to decline, discipline and behavior problems increased, and voices were raised accusing the schools of teaching secular humanism. As the same time, educators were encouraged to address the moral concerns of students using two approaches: values ​​clarification and cognitive developmental moral education. 90003 90002 The first, 90005 values ​​clarification, 90006 rests on little theory other than the assumption that students need practice choosing among moral alternatives and that teachers should be facilitators of the clarification process rather than indoctrinators of particular moral ideas or value choices.This approach, although widely practiced, came under strong criticism for, among other things, promoting moral relativism among students. While currently few educators confidently advocate values ​​clarification, its residue of teacher neutrality and hesitance to actively address ethical issues and the moral domain persists. 90003 90002 The second approach, 90005 cognitive developmental moral education, 90006 sprang from the work of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and was further developed by Lawrence Kohlberg.In contrast to values ​​clarification, cognitive moral development is heavy on theory and light on classroom applications. In its most popular form, Kohlberg posited six sequential stages of moral development, which potentially individuals could achieve. Each stage represents a distinctive way an individual thinks about a moral situation or problem. Teachers are encouraged to engage students from an early age and throughout their schooling in discussion of moral issues and dilemmas. In the later years of his life, Kohlberg was urging educators to transform their schools into «just communities,» environments within which students ‘moral stage development would accelerate.90003 90010 The Return of Character Education 90011 90002 In the early 1980s, amid the widespread concern over students ‘poor academic achievements and behavior, educators rediscovered the word 90005 character. 90006 Moral education had a religious tinge, which made many uneasy. Character with its emphasis on forming good habits and eliminating poor habits struck a popular and traditional chord. The word 90005 character 90006 has a Greek root, coming from the verb «to engrave.» Thus character speaks to the active process of making marks or signs (i.e., good habits) on one’s person. The early formation of good habits is widely acknowledged to be in the best interests of both the individual and society. 90003 90002 In addition, character formation is recognized as something that parents begin early, but the work is hardly completed when a child goes to school. Implicit in the concept of character is the recognition that adults begin the engraving process of habituation to consideration of others, self-control, and responsibility, then teachers and others contribute to the work, but eventually the young person takes over the engraving or formation of his own character.Clearly, though, with their learning demands and taxing events, children’s school years are a prime opportunity for positive and negative (i.e., virtues and vices) character formation. 90003 90002 The impetus and energy behind the return of character education to American schools did not come from within the educational community. It has been fueled, first, by parental desire for orderly schools where standards of behavior and good habits are stressed, and, second, by state and national politicians who responded to these anxious concerns of parents.During his presidency, William Clinton hosted five conferences on character education. President George W. Bush expanded on the programs of the previous administration and made character education a major focus of his educational reform agenda. One of the politically appealing aspects of character education, as opposed to moral education with its religious overtones, is that character education speaks more to the formation of a good citizen. A widely repeated definition (i.e., character education is helping a child to know the good, to desire the good, and to do the good) straddles this issue.For some people the internal focus of character education comfortably can be both religious and civic and for others the focus can be strictly civic, dealing exclusively on the formation of the good citizen. 90003 90010 Current Approaches to Moral Education 90011 90002 The overwhelming percentage of efforts within public education to address the moral domain currently march under the flag of character education. Further, since these conscious efforts at addressing issues of character formation are relatively recent, they are often called 90005 character education programs.90006 The term 90005 program 90006 suggests, however, discrete initiatives that replace an activity or that are added to the school’s curriculum (e.g., a new reading program or mathematics program). And, although there are character education programs available, commercially and otherwise, most advocates urge the public schools to take an infusion approach to educating for character. 90003 90002 90015 The infusion approach. 90016 In general, an 90005 infusion approach 90006 to character education aims to restore the formation of students ‘characters to a central place in schooling.Rather than simply adding on character formation to the other responsibilities of schools, such as numeracy, literacy, career education, health education, and other goals, a focus on good character permeates the entire school experience. In essence, character education joins intellectual development as the overarching goals of the school. Further, character education is seen, not in competition with or ancillary to knowledge- and skill-acquisition goals, but as an important contributor to these goals.To create a healthy learning environment, students need to develop the virtues of responsibility and respect for others. They must eliminate habits of laziness and sloppiness and acquire habits of self-control and diligence. The infusion approach is based on the view that the good habits that contribute to the formation of character in turn contribute directly to the academic goals of schooling. 90003 90002 A mainstay of the infusion approach is the recovery, recasting, or creating of a school’s mission statement, one that reflects the priority placed on the development of good character.Such a statement legitimizes the attention of adults and students alike to this educational goal. It tells administrators that teachers and staff should be hired with good character as a criterion; it tells teachers that not only should character be stressed to students but also their own characters are on display; it tells coaches that athletics should be seen through the lens of sportsmanship rather than winning and losing; and it tells students that their efforts and difficulties, their successes and disappointments are all part of a larger process, the formation of their characters.90003 90002 Critical to the infusion approach is using the curriculum as a source of character education. This is particularly true of the language arts, social studies, and history curricula. The primary focus of these subjects is the study of human beings, real and fictitious. Our great narrative tales carry moral lessons. They convey to the young vivid images of the kinds of people our culture admires and wants them to emulate. These subjects also show them how lives can be wasted, or worse, how people can betray themselves and their communities.Learning about the heroism of former slave Sojourner Truth, who became an evangelist and reformer, and the treachery of Benedict Arnold, the American army officer who betrayed his country to the British, is more than picking up historical information. Encountering these lives fires the student’s moral imagination and deepens his understanding of what constitutes a life of character. Other subjects, such as mathematics and science, can teach students the necessity of intellectual honesty. The curricula of our schools not only contain the core knowledge of our culture but also our moral heritage.90003 90002 In addition to the formal or overt curriculum, schools and classrooms also have a hidden or covert curriculum. A school’s rituals, traditions, rules, and procedures have an impact on students ‘sense of what is right and wrong and what is desired and undesired behavior. So, too, does the school’s student culture. What goes on in the lunchroom, the bathrooms, the locker rooms, and on the bus conveys powerful messages to students. This ethos or moral climate of a school is difficult to observe and neatly categorize.Nevertheless, it is the focus of serious attention by educators committed to an infusion approach. 90003 90002 An important element of the infusion approach is the language with which a school community addresses issues of character and the moral domain. Teachers and administrators committed to an infusion approach use the language of virtues and speak of good and poor behavior and of right and wrong. Words such as responsibility, respect, honesty, and perseverance are part of the working vocabulary of adults and students alike.90003 90002 90015 Other approaches. 90016 One of the most popular approaches to character education is service learning. Sometimes called community service, this approach is a conscious effort to give students opportunities, guidance, and practice at being moral actors. Based on the Greek philosopher Aristotle’s concept of character formation (e.g., a man becomes virtuous by performing virtuous deeds; brave by doing brave deeds), many schools and school districts have comprehensive programs of service learning.Starting in kindergarten, children are given small chores such as feeding the classroom’s gerbil or straightening the desks and chairs. They later move on to tutoring younger students and eventually work up to more demanding service activities in the final years of high school. Typically, these high-school level service-learning activities are off-campus at a home for the blind, a hospital, or a day-care center. Besides placement, the school provides training, guidance, and problem-solving support to students as they encounter problems and difficulties.90003 90002 In recent years, schools across the country have adopted the virtue (or value) of the month approach, where the entire school community gives particular attention to a quality such as cooperation or kindness. Consideration of the virtue for that particular month is reflected in the curriculum, in special assemblies, in hallway and classroom displays, and in school-home newsletters. Related to this are schoolwide programs, such as no put-downs projects, where attention is focused on the destructive and hurtful effects of sarcasm and insulting language and students are taught to replace put-downs with civil forms of communication.90003 90002 There are several skill-development and classroom strategies that are often related to character formation. Among the more widespread are teaching mediation and conflict-resolution skills, where students are given direct teaching in how to deal with disagreements and potential fights among fellow students. Many advocates of cooperative learning assert that instructing students using this instructional process has the added benefit of teaching students habits of helping others and forming friendships among students with whom they otherwise would not mix.90003 90010 Issues and Controversies 90011 90002 The moral education of children is a matter of deep concern to everyone from parents to civic and religious leaders. It is no accident, then, that this subject has been a matter of apprehension and controversy throughout the history of American schools. Issues of morality touch an individual’s most fundamental beliefs. Since Americans are by international standards both quite religiously observant and quite religiously diverse, it is not surprising that moral and character education controversies often have a religious source.Particularly after a period when moral education was not on the agenda of most public schools, its return is unsettling to some citizens. Many who are hostile to religion see this renewed interest in moral education as bringing religious perspectives back into the school «through the back door.» On the other hand, many religious people are suspicious of its return because they perceive it to be an attempt to undermine their family’s religious-based training with a state-sponsored secular humanism.As of the beginning of the twenty-first century, however, the renewed attention to this area has been relatively free of controversy. 90003 90002 Contributing to the positive climate is the use of the term 90005 character 90006 rather than 90005 moral. 90006 While 90005 moral 90006 carries religious overtones for many, the word 90005 character 90006 speaks to good habits and the civic virtues, which hold a community together and allow us to live together in harmony. 90003 90002 A second issue relates to the level of schools and the age of students.The revival of character education in our schools has been evident to a much greater degree in elementary schools. Here schools can concentrate on the moral basics for which there is wide public consensus. The same is true, but to a somewhat lesser degree, for middle and junior high schools. And although there are many positive examples of secondary schools that have implemented broad and effective character education programs, secondary school faculties are hesitant to embrace character education.Part of it is the departmental structures and the time demands of the curriculum; part of it is the age and sophistication of their students; and part of it is that few secondary school teachers believe they have a clear mandate to deal with issues of morality and character. 90003 90002 A third issue relates to the education of teachers. Whereas once teachers in training took philosophy and history of education-courses that introduced them to the American school’s traditional involvement with moral and character education-now few states require these courses.At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the American schools are seeing the large-scale retirement of career teachers and their replacement with large numbers of new teachers. These young teachers tend to be products of elementary and secondary schools where teachers gave little or no direct attention to moral and character education. In addition, a 1999 study by the Character Education Partnership of half of the nation’s teacher education institutions showed that although over 90 percent of the leaders of these programs thought character education ought to be a priority in the preparation of teachers, only 13 percent were satisfied with their institution’s efforts.90003 90010 Evaluation of Moral and Character Education 90011 90002 There are a few character education programs with encouraging evaluation results. The Character Development Project (CDP) has more than 18 years of involvement in several K-6 schools, and in those schools where teachers received staff development and on-site support over 52 percent of the student outcome variables showed significant differences. The Boy Scouts of America developed the Learning For Life Curriculum in the early 1990s for elementary schools.This commercially available, stand-alone curriculum teaches core moral values, such as honesty and responsibility. In a large-scale controlled experiment involving fifty-nine schools, students exposed to the Learning For Life materials showed significant gains on their understanding of the curriculum’s core values, but they were also judged by their teachers to have gained greater self-discipline and ability to stay on a task. 90003 90002 Still, evaluation and assessment in character and moral education is best described as a work in progress.The field is held back by the lack of an accepted battery of reliable instruments, a lack of wide agreement on individual or schoolwide outcomes, and by the short-term nature of most of the existent studies. Complicating these limitations is a larger one: the lack of theoretical agreement of what character is. Human character is one of those overarching entities that is the subject of disciples from philosophy to theology, from psychology to sociology. Further, even within these disciplines there are competing and conflicting theories and understandings of the nature of human character.But although the evaluation challenges are daunting, they are dwarfed by the magnitude of the adult community’s desire to see that our children possess a moral compass and the good habits basic to sound character. 90003 90010 90107 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90108 90011 90002 B 90107 ERKOWITZ 90108, M 90107 ARVIN 90108 W., and O 90107 SER 90108, F 90107 RITZ 90108, eds. 1985. 90005 Moral Education: Theory and Application. 90006 Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 90003 90002 C 90107 HAZAN 90108, B 90107 ARRY 90108.1985. 90005 Contemporary Approaches to Moral Education: Analyzing Alternative Theories. 90006 New York: Teachers College Press. 90003 90002 C 90107 OLES 90108, R 90107 OBERT 90108. 1989. 90005 The Call of Stories. 90006 Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 90003 90002 D 90107 AMON 90108, W 90107 ILLIAM 90108. 1995. 90005 Greater Expectations: Over-coming the Culture of Indulgence in Our Homes and Schools. 90006 New York: Free Press. 90003 90002 E 90107 BERLY 90108, D 90107 ON 90108 E., ed.1995. 90005 America’s Character: Recovering Civic Virtue. 90006 Lanham, MD: Madison. 90003 90002 H 90107 IMMELFARB 90108, G 90107 ERTRUDE 90108. 1995. 90005 The De-Moralization of Society: From Victorian Virtues to Modern Values. 90006 New York: Knopf. 90003 90002 K 90107 ILPATRICK 90108, W 90107 ILLIAM 90108 K. 1992. 90005 Why Johnny Can not Tell Right from Wrong: Moral Literacy and the Case for Character Education. 90006 New York: Simonand Schuster. 90003 90002 K 90107 REEFT 90108, P 90107 ETER 90108.1986. 90005 Back to Virtue. 90006 San Francisco: Ignatius. 90003 90002 L 90107 EWIS 90108, C 90107 LIVE 90108 S. 1947. 90005 The Abolition of Man. 90006 New York: Macmillian. 90003 90002 L 90107 ICKONA 90108, T 90107 HOMAS 90108. 1991. 90005 Educating for Character: How Our Schools Can Teach Respect and Responsibility. 90006 New York: Bantam. 90003 90002 M 90107 ACINTYRE 90108, A 90107 LASDAIR 90108. 1981. 90005 After Virtue. 90006 Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press.90003 90002 M 90107 ANN 90108, H 90107 ORACE 90108. 1849. 90005 Twelfth Annual Report of the Board of Education together with the Twelfth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board of Education. 90006 Boston: Dutton and Wentworth. 90003 90002 N 90107 UCCI 90108, L 90107 ARRY 90108 P., ed. 1989. 90005 Moral Development and Character Education: A Dialogue. 90006 Berkeley, CA: McCutchan. 90003 90002 P 90107 OWER 90108, F. C 90107 LARK 90108; H 90107 IGGINS 90108, A 90107 NN 90108; and K 90107 OHLBERG 90108, L 90107 AWRENCE 90108.1989. 90005 Lawrence Kohlberg’s Approach to Moral Education. 90006 New York: Columbia University Press. 90003 90002 P 90107 RITCHARD 90108, I 90107 VOR 90108. 1998. 90005 Good Education: The Virtues of Learning. 90006 Norwalk, CT: Judd. 90003 90002 R 90107 YAN 90108, K 90107 EVIN 90108, and B 90107 OHLIN 90108, K 90107 AREN 90108. 1999. 90005 Building Character in Schools: Practical Ways to Bring Moral Instruction to Life. 90006 San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 90003 90002 W 90107 ILSON 90108, J 90107 AMES 90108 Q.1993. 90005 The Moral Sense. 90006 New York: Free Press. 90003 90002 W 90107 RIGHT 90108, R 90107 OBERT 90108. 1994. 90005 The Moral Animal: Why We Are the Way We Are. 90006 New York: Pantheon. 90003 .90000 Preschool education | Britannica 90001 90002 History 90003 90004 The name usually associated with the initiation of early childhood education in modern times is Johann Friedrich Oberlin, an Alsatian Lutheran pastor in Waldersbach, who founded in тисяча сімсот шістьдесят сім the first 90005 salle d’asile 90006 (literally, «hall of refuge»), or infant school, for the care and instruction of very small children while their parents worked in the fields. Other educators began imitating his infant school-in Lippe-Detmold, Berlin, Kaiserswerth, Paris, and elsewhere.In France, the 90005 salles d’asile 90006 changed from private to state-supported institutions in 1833 when they were made part of the national educational system. Later, their name was officially changed to 90005 écoles maternelles. 90006 90011 90004 Seemingly independently of the infant-school movement on the European continent, the Scottish reformer Robert Owen in 1 816 founded in his model community New Lanark an Institute for the Formation of Character. It served approximately 100 children of the workers in his cotton mills, mostly from 18 months to 10 years of age; and there were separate infant classes for 2 to 5-year-olds, who spent half their time in instruction and half in recreation.90011 Get exclusive access to content from our тисяча сімсот шістьдесят вісім First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today 90004 The success of the New Lanark school led to the establishment of England’s first infant school in London in 1818. Set up by the man who had directed Owen’s institute, James Buchanan, it cared for children aged one to six years. According to contemporary accounts, Buchanan brought to London the methods that he had evolved at New Lanark: 90011 90016 90004 He began with simple gymnastic movements, arm exercises, clapping the hands, and counting the movements.90005 Viva 90006 90005 voce 90006 lessons followed, arithmetical tables, etc. … Watt’s Divine and Moral Songs and similar hymns soon followed, and the children never tired of singing them to the accompaniment of his flute. He also gave the little people simple object lessons in which they did most of the talking, and learned to observe and describe. 90011 90023 90004 Buchanan’s school was imitated by others, notably by the British educator Samuel Wilderspin, who wrote some of the earliest and most widely disseminated monographs on infant education.90011 90004 In Italy a Roman Catholic father, Ferrante Aporti, read a translated work by Wilderspin and, as a result, established Italy’s first infant school in Cremona in тисячу вісімсот двадцять дев’ять and devised an educational plan that aimed at a harmonious combination of moral, intellectual, and physical education. Manual work, at all educational ages, was to give education a certain concreteness and rationality, making it a process of pupil involvement; the very young were to start off becoming accustomed to discipline, friendly cooperation, and piety.90011 90004 With Friedrich Froebel, the German founder of the kindergarten, there arose the first systematic theory of early childhood pedagogy: instead of considering early schooling a form of babysitting or social philanthropy or considering it merely a period of preparation for adult roles, Froebel saw early childhood development as a special phase during which the child expresses himself through play. Child’s play was a process of discovery and recognition that educated the child to the unity, as well as the diversity, of things in nature.These educational premises guided Froebel’s pedagogical institute at Keilhau (founded in 1816), but it was not until 1837 at nearby Bad Blankenburg that he opened his first infant school, which he later called a 90005 Kindergarten, 90006 or «garden for children.» There he devised a collection of geometric playthings (or «gifts,» as he called them) and various exercises or occupations, such as folding, cutting, and weaving, to make the symbolic forms real or dynamic for the child. Froebel believed that the young child learned best not through formal instruction but through play and imitation, «self-activity.»Within 25 years after Froebel’s death in 1852 kindergartens were founded in leading cities in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States. (90005 See 90006 kindergarten.) 90011 90004 In тисячі вісімсот дев’яносто дві in Italy, the Agazzi sisters, Rosa and Carolina, initiated a blending of Aporti’s infant school and Froebel’s kindergarten and produced a prototypical Italian maternal school (90005 scuola materna 90006). In the school the children were induced to become collaborators in the search for the instruments of their own education-seeking realia (objects from real life) as well as Froebelian symbolic objects to examine.90011 90004 Similarly concerned with nurturing or favourably exploiting the young child’s natural impulses-in a safeguarded, constructive way-was one of the most famous figures in preschool education, Maria Montessori, who began her studies of educational problems with culturally deprived and mentally deficient children in 1899 when she became director of the Orthophrenic School, in Rome. Because her methods worked with defective children, she felt that they might yield even better results with normal children.Thus, in 1907 she took under her care 60 children, aged three to six, from the slums of the San Lorenzo quarter of Rome and thus inaugurated her first Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House). Individual initiative and self-direction characterized the Montessori philosophy, and thus the teacher was to withdraw to the background and merely supervise the use of «didactic materials,» a large complex of educational tools that Montessori herself developed-such as lacing frames, number rods to develop concepts of numbers, map puzzles, and sandpaper letters that children were to trace with their fingers.Also, although usually each child worked alone, group or social activity was not ignored, for there were group gymnastics, games, and religious exercises; and social manners were taught in serving meals, waiting on tables, and the like. The children learned to read, write, and count and to express themselves artistically. 90011 90004 Across Europe, in Belgium, meanwhile, another doctor of medicine, Ovide Decroly, was pioneering in the education of the very young, also proceeding from the psychological study of abnormal or exceptional children.In 1907 he opened his École de l’Ermitage (School of the Hermitage) near Brussels. Unlike Montessori’s children, however, Decroly’s children worked in groups, and, like the Agazzis ‘children, they worked with real things drawn from everyday life. His educational system was based on three processes: observation, expression (oral, written, manual, or artistic), and association of space and time. He felt the universal needs of the child to be food, protection against danger, endurance for the frustrations of life, work, play, self-evaluation, and self-discipline.90011 90004 Across the channel in Great Britain were two pioneers in the movement to improve the health and environment of the very young: Grace Owen and Margaret McMillan. Both saw the nursery school as a place for fostering health and physical development (prerequisites to any other kind of development) and as a place that should be an extension of the home. Owen wanted every housing development to have a nursery school, where children of various ages would constitute a group resembling a large family and where play would facilitate socialization.McMillan outlined a plan for a three-year course for training teachers for the nursery schools, maintaining that only trained personnel should work with children from three to six years of age. Training centres at Manchester (under Owen), at Deptford (under McMillan), and at London supplied nursery teachers for the entire British Commonwealth as well as for the early nursery schools in the United States. 90011 90004 The first decade of the 20th century saw the start of what might be called «collective» upbringing.In what was then Palestine the new settlers established kibbutzim, in which were established separate homes for the children in order to free the mothers to work in the commune. As the system has now evolved, all children of a kibbutz from birth to one year remain in an «infant house,» cared for by a 90005 meṭapelet 90006 (upbringer) in charge of four or five babies. During the nursing stage mothers feed their babies in the infant house. The «toddler house,» containing about eight children one to three or four years old, emphasizes socialization.All children visit home daily for a few hours. In the next stage, kindergarten, the child three or four to seven years old is under the care of a teacher and her three assistants (90005 meṭapelet 90006) 90005. 90006 The aim of this period is readiness for the first grade. 90011 90004 Another variety of collective preschool education is found in Russia, where crèches and kindergartens (90005 detskiye sady 90006 and 90005 yasli 90006) were inaugurated about 1919 року, partly through the persuasions of N.K. Krupskaya (Vladimir I. Lenin’s wife), who viewed preschool education as the first step in creating a new Soviet citizen. Today, children are placed in the crèches (voluntarily) from two months until three years of age; these crèches are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health. The kindergarten, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, accepts children three to seven years old. All teaching materials used are didactic. The socialization process, respect for authority, and the subordination of individual needs to those of the collective are stressed.Self-discipline and self-reliance are key teaching objectives. 90011.90000 90001 NCC Spiritual and Moral Development (1993) 90002 90003 90004 90005 Spiritual and Moral Development (NCC 1993) 90006 90005 Notes on the text 90006 90005 90010 Spiritual and Moral Development 90011 was prepared for the web by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 16 August 2011. 90006 90013 90014 90003 90004 Spiritual and Moral Development 90004 a discussion paper 90005 90019 National Curriculum Council 90020 90004 90019 York: 1993 90020 90006 90025 90005 [title page] 90006 90028 90006 90005 90019 SPIRITUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT 90004 — A DISCUSSION PAPER 90020 90006 90005 APRIL 1 993 90006 90025 90005 [page 1] 90006 90040 90019 90010 FOREWORD 90011 90020 90005 The important role which education, in partnership with the home, can and should play in the spiritual and moral development of our children hardly needs emphasising.These dimensions are vital underpinnings of all aspects of school life and should provide a foundation for adulthood and our society in the future. This discussion paper is intended to help schools meet their challenging responsibilities in these areas and hope that you find it useful. 90006 90005 David L Pascall 90006 90005 Chairman, National Curriculum Council 90004 April 1993 90006 90052 90025 90005 [page 2] 90006 90005 90019 90010 INTRODUCTION 90011 90020 90006 90005 The 90010 Education Reform Act 90011 (90010 1988 90011) (ERA) sets education within the context of the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils and of society.These dimensions underpin the curriculum and the ethos of the school. Their importance is reinforced by their place in the new inspection framework for schools which derives its authority from the 90010 Education (Schools) Act 1992 90011. This Act requires Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Schools to keep the Secretary of State informed about the spiritual, moral, social and cultural development of pupils. Registered inspectors are also required to comment on these matters. 90006 90005 Schools have concentrated over recent years on implementing the National Curriculum and this has heightened awareness of the mental and physical dimensions of education.Although many schools have always recognised the importance of the spiritual and moral dimensions, with the statutory framework of the National Curriculum now in place, there is an opportunity to give closer attention to these issues. 90006 90005 This paper is intended to guide schools in their understanding of spiritual and moral development and to demonstrate that these dimensions apply not only to Religious Education (RE) and collective worship but to every area of ​​the curriculum and to all aspects of school life.This paper has been written particularly for use by maintained schools without a religious foundation, although denominational schools may also find the paper helpful. 90006 90005 90019 90010 SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT 90011 90020 90006 90005 The Education Reform Act refers to a dimension of human existence which is termed the ‘spiritual’ and which applies to all pupils. The potential for spiritual development is open to everyone and is not confined to the development of religious beliefs or conversion to a particular faith.To limit spiritual development in this way would be to exclude from its scope the majority of pupils in our schools who do not come from overtly religious backgrounds. The term needs to be seen as applying to something fundamental in the human condition which is not necessarily experienced through the physical senses and / or expressed through everyday language. It has to do with relationships with other people and, for believers, with God. It has to do with the universal search for individual identity — with our responses to challenging experiences, such as death, suffering, beauty, and encounters with good and evil.It is to do with the search for meaning and purpose in life and for values ​​by which to live. 90006 90005 There are many aspects of spiritual development. 90006 90084 90085 90019 Beliefs 90020 — The development of personal beliefs, including religious beliefs; an appreciation that people have individual and shared beliefs on which they base their lives; a developing understanding of how beliefs contribute to personal identity. 90088 90085 90019 A sense of awe, wonder and mystery 90020 — Being inspired by the natural world, mystery, or human achievement.90088 90085 90019 Experiencing feelings of transcendence 90020 — Feelings which may give rise to belief in the existence of a divine being, or the belief that one’s inner resources provide the ability to rise above everyday experiences. 90088 90097 90025 90005 [page 3] 90006 90084 90085 90019 Search for meaning and purpose 90020 — Asking ‘why me?’ at times of hardship or suffering; reflecting on the origins and purpose of life; responding to challenging experiences of life such as beauty, suffering and death.90088 90085 90019 Self-knowledge 90020 — An awareness of oneself in terms of thoughts, feelings, emotions, responsibilities and experiences; a growing understanding and acceptance of individual identity; the development of self-respect. 90088 90085 90019 Relationships 90020 — Recognising and valuing the worth of each individual; developing a sense of community; the ability to build up relationships with others. 90088 90085 90019 Creativity 90020 — Expressing innermost thoughts and feelings through, for example, art, music, literature and crafts; exercising the imagination, inspiration, intuition and insight.90088 90085 90019 Feelings and emotions 90020 — The sense of being moved by beauty or kindness; hurt by injustice or aggression; a growing awareness of when it is important to control emotions and feelings, and how to learn to use such feelings as a source of growth. 90088 90097 Most people can relate to these things, but they differ in their interpretation of them and in the meaning they ascribe to them. Some people attribute these experiences and feelings to physical, sociological or psychological causes.Others find explanations for them in the teachings of their religion and indeed there is evidence to suggest that the majority of people in Britain have some belief in God. 90005 90019 90010 Spiritual development in an educational context 90011 90020 90006 90005 Spiritual development is an important element of a child’s education and fundamental to other areas of learning. Without curiosity, without the inclination to question, and without the exercise of imagination, insight and intuition, young people would lack the motivation to learn, and their intellectual development would be impaired.Deprived of self-understanding and, potentially of the ability to understand others, they may experience difficulty in co-existing with neighbours and colleagues to the detriment of their social development. Were they not able to be moved by feelings of awe and wonder at the beauty of the world we live in, or the power of artists, musicians and writers to manipulate space, sound and language, they would live in an inner spiritual and cultural desert . 90006 90005 The notion that pupils will develop spiritually raises the expectation that this is an area in which pupils can make progress.Whilst not advocating a model of linear progression, the steps to spiritual development might include: 90006 90084 90085 recognising the existence of others as independent from oneself; 90088 90085 becoming aware of and reflecting on experience; 90088 90085 questioning and exploring the meaning of experience; 90088 90085 understanding and evaluating a range of possible responses and interpretations; 90088 90085 developing personal views and insights; 90088 90085 applying the insights gained with increasing degrees of perception to one’s own life.90088 90097 90025 90005 [page 4] 90006 90005 90019 MORAL DEVELOPMENT 90020 90006 90005 Moral development, like spiritual development, can not be defined by one simple statement. It involves several elements. 90006 90084 90085 90019 The will to behave morally as a point of principle 90020 — This attitude is fundamental to moral development. 90088 90085 90019 Knowledge of the codes and conventions of conduct agreed by society 90020 — both non-statutory and those prescribed by law.90088 90085 90019 Knowledge and understanding of the criteria put forward as a basis for making responsible judgements on moral issues. 90020 90088 90085 90019 The ability to make judgements on moral issues 90020 — as they arise by applying moral principles, insights and reasoning. 90088 90097 A moral issue is one which involves people in making a decision on the basis of what is right and wrong. The decision will often require actions which, it is hoped, will promote goodness and minimise evil.Children need to know the difference between right and wrong although very young children will often not distinguish between the contexts in which words such as ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ are used. Sometimes for example, the word ‘wrong’ will refer only to socially unacceptable behaviour (it’s wrong to poke your tongue out), while at other times a moral absolute is involved. Nevertheless, children need to be introduced from an early age to concepts of right and wrong so that moral behaviour becomes an instinctive habit.90005 Personal morality combines the beliefs and values ​​of individuals, those of the social, cultural and religious groups to which they belong, and the laws and customs of the wider society. Schools should be expected to uphold those values ​​which contain moral absolutes. 90006 90005 90019 School values ​​should include: 90020 90006 90084 90085 telling the truth; 90088 90085 keeping promises; 90088 90085 respecting the rights and property of others; 90088 90085 acting considerately towards others; 90088 90085 helping those less fortunate and weaker than ourselves; 90088 90085 taking personal responsibility for one’s actions; 90088 90085 self-discipline.90088 90097 90019 School values ​​should reject: 90020 90084 90085 bullying; 90088 90085 cheating; 90088 90085 deceit; 90088 90085 cruelty; 90088 90085 irresponsibility; 90088 90085 dishonesty. 90088 90097 Young children rarely have the ability or experience to make their own decisions as to what is right and wrong. Therefore they should grow up knowing which of these things are acceptable and which are not. Young people will inevitably question why things are as they are, and will test the boundaries as did previous generations.But there need to be boundaries — some form of value system which provides the help and support to enable children to come to their own judgements. 90005 In addition to absolute values ​​such as these, children become aware as they grow older that life constantly throws up situations where what is right or wrong is not universally agreed. Society permits, even if it does not promote, a range of behaviour which is 90006 90025 90005 [page 5] 90006 90005 considered wrong by some, often many, of its members.Examples would include drinking alcohol, smoking and gambling as well as divorce, abortion and what are called blood sports. Pupils have to make up their own minds on these and other issues, some of which will arise as part of the planned curriculum and some as a result of immediate events. The task of schools, in partnership with the home, is to furnish pupils with the knowledge and the ability to question and reason which will enable them to develop their own value system and to make responsible decisions on such matters.90006 90005 90019 90010 Moral development in an educational context 90011 90020 90006 90005 Moral development in schools builds on the child’s experience in the home. There needs to be an insistence that pupils behave in an acceptable fashion towards staff and towards each other. All schools have rules about these matters with sanctions to ensure that they are observed. These rules provide an early opportunity for pupils to become aware of and accept that an effective and just society is based on the assumption that certain rules are acceptable to a wide range of individuals.Pupils learn that there are consequences for themselves and others of infringing the rules of the community. As they get older, pupils should come to an understanding of why rules are important, and should act upon them from conviction, rather than simply from fear of getting into trouble. Pupils also learn the more difficult lessons: that rules are interpreted differently by different people, that sometimes allowances are made for people who break rules and sometimes not. 90006 90005 Morally educated school-leavers should be able to: 90006 90084 90085 distinguish between right and wrong; 90088 90085 articulate their own attitudes and values; 90088 90085 take responsibility for their own actions; 90088 90085 recognise the moral dimension to situations; 90088 90085 understand the long and short-term consequences of their actions for themselves and others; 90088 90085 develop for themselves a set of socially acceptable values ​​and principles, and set guidelines to govern their own behaviour; 90088 90085 recognise that their values ​​and attitudes may have to change over time; 90088 90085 behave consistently in accordance with their principles.90088 90097 90025 90005 [page 6] 90006 90005 90019 90010 HOW MIGHT SCHOOLS PROMOTE SPIRITUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT? 90011 90020 90006 90005 There are three areas of school life in which opportunities arise for spiritual and moral development. They are the ethos of the school, all subjects of the curriculum and collective worship. 90006 90005 The 90019 ethos of the school 90020 reflects the values ​​and attitudes which characterise the community, the atmosphere of the school, the quality of relationships, and the way in which the school helps pupils to deal with conflict, loss, grief or difficulties.The ethos of the school reflects the values ​​which the community intends to promote. These values ​​determine behaviour throughout the school and particularly in the classroom. Every school claims to value academic excellence and achievement of potential. Therefore expectations governing classroom behaviour should be directed towards provision of a positive working environment. Probably all schools state that it is their aim to develop in young people a sense of respect for others regardless of race or creed.Therefore they should treat with sensitivity the views of people in the school who express their spirituality in the terms of different religious traditions. Schools should also be aware of the religious backgrounds of their pupils and should be sensitive in their response to pupils who have a religious faith. 90006 90005 The knowledge and understanding essential to both spiritual and moral development, and the ability to make responsible and reasoned judgements should be developed through 90019 all subjects of the curriculum 90020.In most aspects of the curriculum pupils should encounter questions about the origins of the universe, the purpose of life, the nature of proof, the uniqueness of humanity and the meaning of truth. They should be encouraged to reflect on the possibility of certainty, and to question the often exaggerated view of the infallibility of science as the only means of understanding the world, and the equally exaggerated view of the inadequacy of religion and philosophy. Moral issues will arise, for example, in science (issues of life and death), geography (environmental issues) and history (development of tolerance).In particular, schools should ensure that all pupils receive Religious Education which promotes spiritual and moral development in the light of the teachings of the great world religions. For schools teaching an agreed syllabus in line with ERA, most attention should be given to Christianity which has contributed so forcibly to the spiritual and moral values ​​of this country whilst also introducing pupils to the other major religions in our community. 90006 90005 Religious Education has a particularly important part to play in pupils ‘spiritual and moral development.Most Agreed Syllabuses require pupils to be challenged by the ultimate questions of life and death such as, ‘Who am I?’, ‘What’s wrong?’ ‘What’s the remedy?’, ‘Are there absolutes of right and wrong?’ Pupils should be encouraged to address such questions elsewhere in the curriculum, but it is in Religious Education where they should be explicitly required to do so. They must be free to respond to such questions or not, and their response can not be pre-determined. However, informed responses to such questions can only be made in the light of knowledge and understanding of the wisdom of others.Pupils should be challenged by hearing the claims to truth offered by people with a different religious or philosophical perspective on life. 90006 90025 90005 [page 7] 90006 90005 The spiritual and moral development of pupils implies the need for a variety of learning experiences which provide opportunities for pupils to: 90006 90084 90085 discuss matters of personal concern; 90088 90085 develop relationships with adults and peers; 90088 90085 develop a sense of belonging to a community; 90088 90085 be challenged by exploring the beliefs and values ​​of others while deepening their knowledge and understanding of their own faith or beliefs; 90088 90085 discuss religious and philosophical questions; 90088 90085 understand why people reach certain decisions on spiritual and moral issues, and how those decisions affect their lives; 90088 90085 experience what is aesthetically challenging; 90088 90085 experience silence and reflection.90088 90097 90019 Collective worship 90020 should offer pupils opportunities to explore and share beliefs; consider the importance of prayer, meditation and silence; consider the relevance of ideas and beliefs to their own lives; think about the needs of others and develop a sense of community; and appreciate the importance of religious beliefs to those who hold them. Collective worship also offers an opportunity to re-affirm, interpret and put into practice the values ​​of the school. It provides a time to celebrate the various achievements of members of the community that are held to be of worth.90005 If collective worship is genuinely to stimulate reflection and growth, it needs to involve all members of the community. This involvement requires planning, and it is important that schools can demonstrate precisely how collective worship has been planned to promote spiritual and moral development within the framework of the law. 90006 90005 90019 90010 PREPARING THE SCHOOL POLICY 90011 90020 90006 90005 The Government will soon be consulting on regulations which will require all schools to produce a clear statement of their policy in relation to spiritual and moral development of pupils.Individual teachers and other adults in schools transmit values ​​to pupils consciously or unconsciously, and it is important that these values ​​are consistent with those which the school claims to promote. Parents have a right to know, and are concerned about, the messages their children pick up, especially from teachers who are often seen as role models. Schools and governing bodies which have not already done so need to clarify the school’s policy in these areas and the set of core values ​​which define the school’s approach.90006 90005 90019 90010 A Statement of Values ​​90011 90020 90006 90005 The ethos of the school may be apparent through a statement which sets out the values ​​the school intends to promote and which it intends to demonstrate through all aspects of its life. For the school, the production of such a statement provides opportunities for all those involved to engage in the spiritual and moral debate, and to agree to core values ​​which are acceptable to all. This means that all members of staff and governors need to agree to uphold these values ​​and exercise their authority when agreed values ​​are ignored.Parents and children need to agree that, having selected the school in the full knowledge of those values, they are prepared to abide by them. It is important to remember that children, especially older pupils, are more likely to feel 90006 90025 90005 [page 8] 90006 90005 a commitment to abiding by the values ​​of the school if those values ​​are openly and explicitly discussed with them. 90006 90005 90019 90010 Values ​​and Behaviour 90011 90020 90006 90005 The standards of behaviour expected by a school are those which reflect its values.It is important that a school establishes those values ​​which determine behaviour throughout the school and particularly in the classroom. ‘The most effective schools seem to be those that have created a positive atmosphere based on a sense of community and shared values’ (Discipline in Schools — the ‘Elton Report’ 1989). 90006 90005 Children are more likely to behave responsibly if they are given responsibility. But this can only be really effective in a community which gives that responsibility within a framework of clearly stated boundaries of acceptable behaviour, and where teachers respond firmly and promptly to pupils who exceed those boundaries.90006 90005 Values ​​are inherent in 90019 teaching 90020. Teachers are by the nature of their profession ‘moral agents’ who imply values ​​by the way they address pupils and each other, the way they dress, the language they use and the effort they put into their work. 90006 90005 Values ​​lie at the heart of the school’s vision of itself as a 90019 community 90020. Procedures for giving praise, appointing officers, rewarding and punishing, all give messages about what qualities are valued. Policies about admissions, especially regarding children with special needs, are equally indicative of values.90006 90005 Developing a statement of values ​​is not simply a process aimed at producing glossy documentation. It is an essential and honest statement about the school and what it stands for. While many schools share common values, they will differ in others, and those differences are critical in affecting parental choice. 90006 90005 The most important point about a statement of values ​​is that it should be implemented — that it should not only be seen but should be seen to be effective. Perhaps the most difficult task for schools is ensuring that its values ​​truly underpin expectations and rules, and that they are taken seriously by all members of the community.The fact that some aspects of the statement should be kept permanently under review will automatically involve new members in deliberations. 90006 90025 90005 [page 9] 90006 90005 90019 90010 PUPILS ‘SPIRITUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT — INSPECTION CRITERIA 90011 90020 90006 90005 Inspection arrangements vary across different types of school to take account of the status of Voluntary Aided, Special Agreement schools and others. 90006 90005 Schools are strongly advised not to attempt to assess pupils ‘spiritual and moral development.Such an activity could be regarded as intrusive and any judgements made highly subjective. However schools should evaluate the curriculum and other areas of school life to ensure that appropriate opportunities for spiritual and moral development are being provided. 90006 90005 From 1993 OFSTED will be inspecting and evaluating schools ‘provision for spiritual and moral development and pupils’ response to this provision. Evidence of such provision will be gathered through: 90006 90084 90085 discussions with the head, other members of staff and, if possible with the Chair of Governors; 90088 90085 observation of lessons and other aspects of the school’s work; 90088 90085 observation of daily collective worship.90088 90097 These discussions and observations should indicate whether the school, for example: 90084 90085 has an agreed approach to the ways in which spiritual and moral issues should be addressed throughout the school; 90088 90085 promotes an ethos which values ​​imagination, inspiration, contemplation, and a clear understanding of right and wrong; 90088 90085 offers opportunities in the curriculum for reflective and aesthetic experience and the discussion of questions about meaning and purpose; 90088 90085 makes adequate provision of Religious Education and collective worship.90088 90097 90025 90005 [page 10] 90006 90005 90019 90010 QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 90011 90020 90006 90005 Schools should evaluate the curriculum and other aspects of school life to ensure that opportunities are provided for the spiritual and moral development of pupils. The following questions may be helpful in initiating discussion. 90006 90084 90085 How would you describe the ethos of your school? In what ways, if any, would you like it to change? 90088 90085 Where in the curriculum are there opportunities for spiritual and moral development? 90088 90085 How does your school ensure that collective worship promotes the spiritual and moral development of pupils? 90088 90085 How does your school take into account the religious background of its pupils? 90088 90085 How can schools best go about defining and publicising their core values? 90088 90085 What are the strategies for answering pupils ‘questions which have spiritual and moral development implications? 90088 90085 How can governors and staff best involve parents in these issues? 90088 90097 90005 90006 90013 90401.

Отправить ответ

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о